Tsunami Mitigation
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A tsunami is a series of waves most commonly caused by violent movement of the sea floor. In some ways, it resembles the ripples radiating outward from the spot where stone has been thrown into the water, but a tsunami can occur on an enormous scale. Tsunamis are generated by any large, impulsive displacement of the sea bed level. The movement at the sea floor leading to tsunami can be produced by earthquakes, landslides and volcanic eruptions.

Earthquake Tsunamis: 
Most tsunamis, including almost all of those traveling across entire ocean basins with destructive force, are caused by submarine faulting associated with large earthquakes. These are produced when a block of the ocean floor is thrust upward, or suddenly drops, or when an inclined area of the seafloor is thrust upward or suddenly thrust sideways. In any event, a huge mass of water is displaced, producing tsunami. Such fault movements are accompanied by earthquakes, which are sometimes referred to as “tsunamigenic earthquakes”. Most tsunamigenic earthquakes take place at the great ocean trenches, where the tectonic plates that make up the earth’s surface collide and are forced under each other. When the plates move gradually or in small thrust, only small earthquakes are produced; however, periodically in certain areas, the plates catch. The overall motion of the plates does not stop; only the motion beneath the trench becomes hung up. Such areas where the plates are hung up are known as “seismic gaps” for their lack of earthquakes. The forces in these gaps continue to build until finally they overcome the strength of the rocks holding back the plate motion. The built-up tension (or comprehension) is released in one large earthquake, instead of many smaller quakes, and these often generate large deadly tsunamis. If the sea floor movement is horizontal, a tsunami is not generated. Earthquakes of magnitude larger than M 6.5 are critical for tsunami generation.


Tsunamis produced by landslides: 

Probably the second most common cause of tsunami is landslide. A tsunami may be generated by a landslide starting out above the sea level and then plunging into the sea, or by a landslide entirely occurring underwater. Landslides occur when slopes or deposits of sediment become too steep and the material falls under the pull of gravity. Once unstable conditions are present, slope failure can be caused by storms, earthquakes, rain, or merely continued deposit of material on the slope. Certain environments are particularly susceptible to the production of landslide-generated earthquakes. River deltas and steep underwater slopes above sub-marine canyons, for instance, are likely sites for landslide-generated earthquakes.

Tsunami produced by Volcanoes: 
The violent geologic activity associated with volcanic eruptions can also generate devastating tsunamis. Although volcanic tsunamis are much less frequent, they are often highly destructive. These may be due to submarine explosions, pyroclastic flows and collapse of volcanic caldera. 

(1)   Submarine volcanic explosions occur when cool seawater encounters hot volcanic magma. It often reacts violently, producing stream explosions. Underwater eruptions at depths of less than 1500 feet are capable of disturbing the water all the way to the surface and producing tsunamis. 

(2)   Pyroclastic flows are incandescent, ground-hugging clouds, driven by gravity and fluidized by hot gases. These flows can move rapidly off an island and into the ocean, their impact displacing sea water and producing a tsunami. 

(3)   The collapse of a volcanic caldera can generate tsunami. This may happen when the magma beneath a volcano is withdrawn back deeper into the earth, and the sudden subsidence of the volcanic edifice displaces water and produces tsunami waves. The large masses of rock that accumulate on the sides of the volcanoes may suddenly slide down slope into the sea, causing tsunamis. Such landslides may be triggered by earthquakes or simple gravitational collapse. A catastrophic volcanic eruption and its ensuing tsunami waves may actually be behind the legend of the lost island civilization of Atlantis. The largest volcanic tsunami in historical times and the most famous historically documented volcanic eruption took lace in the East Indies-the eruption of Krakatau in 1883.

Tsunami waves :
A tsunami has a much smaller amplitude (wave height) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometers long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a passing "hump" in the ocean. Tsunamis have been historically referred to tidal waves because as they approach land, they take on the characteristics of a violent onrushing tide rather than the sort of cresting waves that are formed by wind action upon the ocean (with which people are more familiar). Since they are not actually related to tides the term is considered misleading and its usage is discouraged by oceanographers.

These waves are different from other wind-generated ocean waves, which rarely extend below a dept of 500 feet even in large storms. Tsunami waves, on the contrary, involvement of water all the way to the sea floor, and as a result their speed is controlled by the depth of the sea. Tsunami waves may travel as fast as 500 miles per hour or more in deep waters of an ocean basin. Yet these fast waves may be only a foot of two high in deep water. These waves have greater wavelengths having long 100 miles between crests. With a height of 2 to 3 feet spread over 100 miles, the slope of even the most powerful tsunamis would be impossible to see from a ship or airplane. A tsunami may consist of 10 or more waves forming a ‘tsunami wave train’. The individual waves follow one behind the other anywhere from 5 to 90 minutes apart.

As the waves near shore, they travel progressively more slowly, but the energy lost from decreasing velocity is transformed into increased wavelength. A tsunami wave that was 2 feet high at sea may become a 30-feet giant at the shoreline. Tsunami velocity is dependent on the depth of water through which it travels (velocity equals the square root of water depth h times the gravitational acceleration g, that is (V=√gh). The tsunami will travel approximately at a velocity of 700 kmph in 4000 m depth of sea water. In 10 m, of water depth the velocity drops to about 35 kmph. Even on shore tsunami speed is 35 to 40 km/h, hence much faster than a person can run.It is commonly believed that the water recedes before the first wave of a tsunami crashes ashore. In fact, the first sign of a tsunami is just as likely to be a rise in the water level. Whether the water rises or falls depends on what part of the tsunami wave train first reaches the coast. A wave crest will cause a rise in the water level and a wave trough causes a water recession.

Seiche (pronounced as ‘saysh’) is another wave phenomenon that may be produced when a tsunami strikes. The water in any basin will tend to slosh back and forth in a certain period of time determined by the physical size and shape of the basin. This sloshing is known as the seiche. The greater the length of the body, the longer the period of oscillation. The depth of the body also controls the period of oscillations, with greater water depths producing shorter periods. A tsunami wave may set off seiche and if the following tsunami wave arrives with the next natural oscillation of the seiche, water may even reach greater heights than it would have from the tsunami waves alone. Much of the great height of tsunami waves in bays may be explained by this constructive combination of a seiche wave and a tsunami wave arriving simultaneously. Once the water in the bay is set in motion, the resonance may further increase the size of the waves. The dying of the oscillations, or damping, occurs slowly as gravity gradually flattens the surface of the water and as friction turns the back and forth sloshing motion into turbulence. Bodies of water with steep, rocky sides are often the most seiche-prone, but any bay or harbour that is connected to offshore waters can be perturbed to form seiche, as can shelf waters that are directly exposed to the open sea.

The presence of a well developed fringing or barrier of coral reef off a shoreline also appears to have a strong effect on tsunami waves. A reef may serve to absorb a significant amount of the wave energy, reducing the height and intensity of the wave impact on the shoreline itself.

Bores :
The popular image of a tsunami wave approaching shore is that of a nearly vertical wall of water, similar to the front of a breaking wave in the surf. Actually, most tsunamis probably don’t form such wave fronts; the water surface instead is very close to the horizontal, and the surface itself moves up and down. However, under certain circumstances an arriving tsunami wave can develop an abrupt steep front that will move inland at high speeds. This phenomenon is known as a bore. In general, the way a bore is created is related to the velocity of the shallow water waves. As waves move into progressively shallower water, the wave in front will be traveling more slowly than the wave behind it .This phenomenon causes the waves to begin “catching up” with each other, decreasing their distance apart i.e. shrinking the wavelength. If the wavelength decreases, but the height does not, then waves must become steeper. Furthermore, because the crest of each wave is in deeper water than the adjacent trough, the crest begins to overtake the trough in front and the wave gets steeper yet. Ultimately the crest may begin to break into the trough and a bore formed. A tsunami can cause a bore to move up a river that does not normally have one. Bores are particularly common late in the tsunami sequence, when return flow from one wave slows the next incoming wave. Though some tsunami waves do, in deed, form bores, and the impact of a moving wall of water is certainly impressive, more often the waves arrive like a very rapidly rising tide that just keeps coming and coming. The normal wind waves and swells may actually ride on top of the tsunami, causing yet more turbulence and bringing the water level to even greater heights.

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Date and Time

19-Aug-2019 03:47:52

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